Research in the Pragmatics strand examines how language and other semiotic resources are used for social action. Studies are guided by discursive, linguistic, psychological, semiotic, or sociological perspectives on pragmatics. They focus on how pragmatic meaning is produced, understood, learned, developed, lost, taught, and assessed in any modality – spoken discourse, written text, multimodal discourse, and any form of electronically mediated communication. Data may be naturally occurring (e.g., corpus data, video/audio recordings of particular settings, diary entries) or elicited through surveys, tests and other instruments.