Race, identity and dialect in the Spanish Language Classroom
Organizers: Glenn Martinez, Ohio State University
Kimberly Geeslin, Indiana University
Discussant: Jennifer Leeman, George Mason University
The Spanish language classroom has long been a site of contestation and tensions. In this context, language learners bring individual and group identities and these are met with implicit and explicit social and linguistic classroom norms. Classroom dynamics are known to privilege foreign-ness (Train 2007), elevate standard language ideologies (Martinez and Train, 2020), further colonial projects (Macedo 2019), and reify raciolinguistic hierarchies (Rosa and Flores 2015; Rosa 2019). Recent theoretical insights and transformations in the teaching of Spanish are beginning to shed new light on these dynamics with the potential of unsettling them throughout the Spanish language education ecosystem. This panel seeks to explore the potential of these insights and transformations in changing the face of Spanish language teaching and learning.
Adam Schwartz, drawing on Jane Hill’s theoretical insights into the everyday language of White racism, argues that Spanish education operates within a White public space and uncovers its impact on Latinx identities. Avizia Long and Lauren Schmidt explore the role of perceptions of social and regional dialects in shaping learner identity. Taking into account the raciolinguistic context of Spanish language learning and its impact on L2 learner identity, Diego Pascual y Cabo proposes a forward-looking model of Spanish language teaching that transforms the Spanish language classroom into a space for counterhegemonic action. Finally, Francisco Salgado Robles and Greg Thompson explore the potential of service learning as a means to provide meaningful opportunities for language use and development. Tracy Quan addresses study abroad as a means to foster the development of translingual identities. Together, our panelists explore key educational practices that can contest the raciolinguistically-constructed classroom and contribute to a larger vision of Spanish language education for societal transformation.
Let’s talk “nativeness” and White expertise: Situating Hill’s ‘cultural projects’ model within Spanish language education in the U.S.
Adam Schwartz , Oregon State University
In The Everyday Language of White Racism (2008), Jane H. Hill’s examination of white racist culture in the U.S. is framed as a series of continuously operating “projects”: (1) the production of a human taxonomy; (2) the assignment of individuals therein through racialization or racial formation (Omi & Winant, 1994); (3) the arrangement of these types in a hierarchy; (4) the movement of material and symbolic resources up the hierarchy so as to “elevate Whiteness and denigrate Color” (Hill, 2008, pp. 20-21). In this talk, I argue that contemporary examples of L2 Spanish education operate within a White public space (Hill, 1999) in which these cultural projects co-naturalize (Rosa, 2019) with ideologies about Latinx linguistic practices and the teaching of Spanish as a Latinx language. Findings emerged from “focused conversations” (Tannen, 2008) with White-identified, U.S.-born university professors of Spanish for whom this language of scholarly expertise is L2. Claims to “nativeness,” “non-nativeness” and “expertise,” for example, arrange hierarchically in conversation in ways that parallel ideologies about a racial order. The acquisition of Spanish by “White speaking” and “listening subjects” (Flores & Rosa, 2015) take both symbolic and material forms for White consumption and benefit both in and outside the academy.
Beyond language learning: The Spanish classroom as a space for counterhegemonic action
Diego Pascual y Cabo, University of Florida
Framed within a larger critical discourse on the relationship between language, race and identity in the United States, the goal of this presentation is threefold. First, I will examine the impact that ongoing demographic changes will have on the teaching of the Spanish language in the years to come. Second, highlighting insights gained through recent theoretical and empirical findings, I will propose a visionary approach that places Spanish as a heritage language --and most importantly, its speakers-- in a much more prominent role across all institutional levels. Lastly, via an examination of the challenges, best practices and research-informed pedagogical strategies, attendees will be invited to think critically about their own teaching ideas and current practices so they can not only better understand and more effectively engage traditional second language learners and heritage speakers in the learning process, but also equip their students -not just with language skills- but with the necessary tools to become agents of change.
The intersection of dialectal variation and L2 learner identities in California Spanish language classrooms
Avizia Long, San José State University & Lauren Schmidt, San Diego State University
Previous research has shown that second language learners’ perceptions of particular social and regional communities and varieties of the target language influence the construction of individual learner identities and, ultimately, language learning outcomes, in study abroad and immersion contexts (George, 2014; Ringer-Hilfinger, 2012; Schmidt, to appear; Trimble, 2013). Learners’ perceptions of target language varieties in the “at home” context (i.e., learning Spanish in the United States) have received less empirical attention (Geeslin & Schmidt, 2015), despite the fact that these perceptions, along with other social factors and individual characteristics and experiences, may shape learner identity and language learning, particularly in regions where local and international varieties of Spanish are present and spoken in the local community.
With this framework in mind, this presentation highlights issues of identity and dialect in Spanish language classrooms in California. Using San José State University and San Diego State University as test sites—representing Northern and Southern California, respectively—questionnaire data were collected and analyzed to understand “who” learners are and how they approach the acquisition of Spanish as it relates to their exposure to and perception of US and other varieties of Spanish. The questionnaire, designed and delivered to first, second, and third year learners using Qualtrics, elicited demographic and background information as well as information about learners’ familiarity with and evaluation of multiple varieties of Spanish. Findings are discussed in relation to identity development and acquisition of sociolinguistic competence in California-based Spanish language classrooms, and specific areas for continued future research are outlined.
Spanish language acquisition in the US through service-learning
Francisco Salgado-Robles, College of Staten Island, CUNY & Greg Thompson, Brigham Young University
Although service learning (SL) shares similarities with other types of experiential learning such as internships, field education, volunteer activities, or community service, it has certain distinct features that make it a valuable tool for the acquisition of Spanish in the US. To represent the distinctions among various types of service programs, Furco (1996) developed an experiential education continuum based in large part off the work of five pedagogy theorists (Dewey, 1916; Freire, 1972; Vygotsky, 1978; Giroux, 1992; McLaren, 1995). Regarding the investigation on the impact of SL on language teaching and learning, the number of studies has increased in the last two decades. However, the majority of this research has been limited to the study of the connection between SL and oral proficiency or SL and target culture (Brown & Thompson, 2018) and to mainly qualitative or mixed methodological approaches.
In this presentation, we will discuss several theoretical models of service learning and connect SL with the acquisition of language competence (Bachman, 1990). We will examine the advantages for second language learners of Spanish of participating in service learning in different Spanish-speaking communities throughout the US. Specifically, we will show how SL within these communities can be used to address the World-Readiness Standards for Learning Languages established by the American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL): communication, cultures, communities, connections, and comparisons.
We also explore several models for undergraduate linguistics courses that include a SL component and focus on language variation (Charity et al., 2008). The scarce amount of inquiry on SL and language education and sociolinguistics has explored issues on intercultural competence, critical language, and lexical variation applied to SL, pre-service teacher programs, and language for specific purposes (LSP). We will present the findings from these studies as well as other studies that have used a variety of methodological approaches and assessment tools in SL research (surveys and pre/post questionnaires, interviews and focus groups, observation rating scales and checklists, etc.) to determine the effectiveness this methodology for the cquisition of Spanish in the US.
Fostering Translingual Identities in U.S.-Based Study Abroad Curricula for Spanish
Tracy Quan, University of Colorado, Boulder
U.S.-based study abroad research and programs tend to focus on L2 learners of English backgrounds studying in “exotic monolingual” contexts (Marijuan & Sanz, 2018, p. 9). However, in the case of Spanish, many learners and host communities are better described as multilingual and multicultural (García & Otheguy, 2014). In fact, how multilinguals reflect on and interpret their experiences abroad as they develop Spanish as an L3 or a heritage language has been undertheorized and under prioritized (Tullock & Ortega, 2017). Multilinguals navigate multiple identities, cross linguistic and social boundaries, and employ their entire set of language resources to make meaning--that is, they engage in translingual practice (Canagarajah, 2013) or translanguaging (Li Wei & García, 2013). Those with the capacity and disposition to participate in such interactive practices draw on their translingual identity to do so (Menard-Warwick, 2019). Yet, how does the process of language learning and living elsewhere lead multilinguals to reflect on and potentially reimagine their identities?
Employing a theoretical framework of translingual practice and translanguaging, this presentation aims to: 1) highlight the rich resources multilinguals draw on to understand their experiences abroad and 2) illustrate how study abroad has the potential to foster and reaffirm translingual and transcultural identities. This presentation discusses two case studies: “Maria”--a Mexican American heritage learner of Spanish in Spain--and “Terry”--a Vietnamese American learner of Spanish in Guatemala. Through thematic analyses of interviews and coursework, the findings illustrate how engaging in translingual practices abroad, either naturalistically or due to the curriculum, facilitates participants’ meta-awareness and critical reflection of their racialized identities, of the minority status of their language practices, and of their cultural backgrounds across sociopolitical contexts. The positive outcomes of both cases argue for a translanguaging approach to study abroad which can be more inclusive and transformative than L2-oriented immersion models.